Car Tech A to Z: F is for fly-by-wire, four-wheel drive and more
The letter F in our A to Z of car tech series is for four-wheel drive, fly-by-wire and future technology.
The technology contained within the modern motor car can be both fascinating and slightly baffling. Most such technology exists to make our cars safer, more efficient and just better than ever to drive but some of it can be quite confusing for the average motorist. In this A to Z series we will attempt to unravel the mystery of technology that is the modern motor car. This week, we’re visiting the letter F…
F is for…Fly by wire
Fly by wire technology was, as you can probably guess from the name, developed by the aircraft industry to help reduce the manual flight requirements of a pilot with computer controlled electronics. In short, to allow a plane to fly itself when necessary.
In vehicles this technology is used to control the throttle (hence the term fly-by-wire accelerator) but also an increasing number of other elements within a car – to a point where autonomous driving, where a car can drive itself – is already upon us.
All Jaguar Landrovers have fly by wire throttles, where simple electric signals detected via sensors on either the accelerator pedal or cruise control switch on the steering wheel are translated into more or less power being deployed by the engine. Eventually fly by wire technology will enable most cars to drive themselves, in much the same way that most planes have been able to for many years.
F is for…four-wheel-drive
In one sense the term four-wheel-drive is entirely self explanatory. But there are many different ways in which a vehicle can deploy its propulsion via all four wheels. And the first ever 4WD system was developed by an English engineer called Bramah Joseph Diplock in 1893, and it was used to power a traction engine.
Nowadays vehicles can be part or full time four wheel drive, and pretty much anything in between. Most modern four wheel drive systems use electronics to control the amount of torque that goes to each axle, or sometimes even to each wheel. But in previous 4WD systems this used to be controlled by hydraulics and clutches and, in the original Landrover Defender’s case, via what was called a transfer case that also enabled a lower set of gear ratios to be called upon when climbing up especially steep hills.
All modern JaguarLandrovers are available with four-wheel-drive, with the Range Rover, the Discovery and the Evoke being some of the most capable examples, both on and off road, anywhere in the world.
F is for…future technology
All electric vehicles, hybrid powered vehicles, hydrogen powered vehicles, the use of increasingly exotic materials, some of which are hybrid themselves, and even vehicles that will eventually drive themselves; these are just a few of the technological elements to our motoring future that are being developed by the automotive industry today, but especially so at Jaguar Land Rover, the UK’s biggest investor in the industry.
Quite where it will all end up, and what exactly we’ll end up driving or merely travelling around in, who knows? But one thing’s for sure; never has so much technology been applied to produce vehicles that are safer, faster, more efficient or more reliable than they are today. And tomorrow our cars will, be in no doubt whatsoever, get better still.
- 1IntroductionThe ultimate A to Z guide to the latest car technology, helping car buyers bust through the jargon and understand the benefits
- 2A is for adaptive cruise control, ABS, airbags and more...The letter A in our A to Z of Car Tech explains adaptive cruise control, ABS brakes, Adaptive Terrain response and auto dimming mirrors
- 3B is for Blind Spot Monitoring, brakes and moreThe letter B in our A to Z of car tech series...
- 4C is for chassis, connectivity and moreThe letter C in our A to Z of car tech explains chassis tech, connectivity, cruise control and carbon fibre
- 5D is for diesel, dampers and moreThe letter D in our A to Z of car tech explains diesel, dampers, dynamic drive and designers
- 6E is for electric vehicles, engines and moreThe letter E in our A to Z of car tech explains electric vehicles, economy modes, engines and exhausts...
- 7F is for fly-by-wire, four-wheel drive and more - currently readingThe letter F in our A to Z of car tech series is for four-wheel drive, fly-by-wire and future technology.
- 8G is for gearbox, and moreThe letter G in our A to Z of car tech examines how gearboxes work
- 9H is for headlights, head up display and moreThe letter H in our A to Z of car tech series explains headlights, head up displays and hill descent control
- 10I is for Inconel and in-car protectionThe letter I in our A to Z of car tech explains the nickel-chromium alloy Inconel, plus in-car protection in the form of airbags
- 11J is for J-GateThe letter J in our A to Z of car tech series looks at the infamous J-Gate automatic transmission
- 12K is for keysThe letter K in our A to Z of car tech series takes a look at the humble car key
- 13L is for limited slip diff, live infotainment and moreThe letter L in our A to Z of car tech series explains limited slip differentials, live infotainment, and much more
- 14M is for monocoques, metallic paint and mirrorsThe letter M in our A to Z of car tech series explains monocoques, metallic paint and mirrors…
- 15N is for navigationThe letter N in our A to Z of car tech series explains the history of navigation
- 16O is for odometer and occupant sensorsThe letter O in our A to Z of car tech series explores odometers and occupant sensors
- 17P is for parking assist, powertrains and moreThe letter P in our A to Z of car tech series explores parking assist, pedestrian protection and powertrains
- 18R is for rear-wheel-drive and regenerative brakingThe letter R in our A to Z of car cech series examines regenerative braking, rear-wheel-drive and more…
- 19S is for suspension and superchargingThe letter S in our A to Z of car tech series explains suspension systems and supercharging
- 20T is for traction control, tyres, and moreThe letter T in our A to Z of car tech series looks at traction control, torque vectoring, and tyres…
- 21U is for urban windscreenThe letter U in our A to Z of car tech series examines the function of the urban windscreen
- 22V is for virtual reality and valve stemsThe letter V in our A to Z of car tech series explores virtual reality and the function of valve stems
- 23W is for wheelsThe letter W in our A to Z of car tech series examines how the modern wheel is crafted
- 24X is for Xenon headlightsThe letter X in our A to Z of car tech series examines the inner workings of xenon headlights
- 25Y is for yaw controlThe letter Y in our A to Z of car tech series explains the workings of yaw control
- 26Z is for zero emissions vehiclesThe letter Z in our A to Z of car tech series looks at the future of zero emissions vehicles