PCP (Personal Contract Purchase) car deals explained

PCP deals are a popular way of buying cars because they can be very flexible. Here’s how they work…

  • Pros: low monthly payments, flexible options, guaranteed future value
  • Cons: expensive to buy a car outright, penalties for damage and excess mileage if car is returned, limited mileage

Personal contract purchase (PCP) deals are the most popular kind of finance package used by drivers buying a new car, with more than three-quarters doing so in the UK. A PCP deal should give you flexibility and low monthly repayments, although these won’t fully cover the total price of the car.

PCP deals consist of three main parts:

  1. The initial deposit: a dealer or manufacturer may make a contribution towards this, and the higher the deposit you can afford, the lower your monthly payments will be
  2. Monthly payments: along with the deposit, monthly repayments pay off the car’s predicted depreciation over the duration of the contract
  3. Final payment: at the end of your contract you can either return the car, or make the final ‘balloon’ payment in order to own it outright

The finance company sets the value of the final payment, and it’s usually an estimate of what the car will be worth after your contract is up. It is also known as the Guaranteed Minimum Future Value (GMFV).

Although PCP deals have some great benefits - flexible terms, low monthly repayments and (usually) low interest rates - it’s important to make sure that you know what you’re getting into. The small print of each contract could include harsh financial penalties for minor damage, and you’ll also be charged extra for every mile you drive beyond the pre-agreed annual limit.

It may sometimes be cheaper to take out a hire purchase agreement instead.

Still, PCP deals are proving popular with UK motorists, and in recent years have fuelled the boom in UK consumer credit. That's because big manufacturers such as FordNissanBMW and VW have the financial clout behind them to make PCPs affordable and available to more buyers looking to change their car for a new one. 

With so many dealers offering PCPs, there will certainly be one to suit your next new car purchase, whether you're buying a supermini, crossover, hot hatch, estate or SUV. You can even get PCP deals on used cars, which will make your money go even further. As with all forms of credit it pays to be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of taking out a PCP. The flexibility and guarantee of a future value of the car when you come to the end of the plan are appealing, but dealers love PCPs too because the way they are structured means that buyers will come back to the same brand every three years or so and trade into another car.  

A PCP finance deal will see buyers paying instalments that cover part of the cost of a new car – usually around a third of the list price – which means that these monthly outgoings will be lower than if you take out a loan to buy a car outright.

If you'd like to own the car at the end of the PCP, then you’ll need to stump up a substantial final payment – the GMFV payment – to take the keys. If you're looking to buy a car to keep for the long term, then a PCP probably isn't the right kind of finance for you.

However, if you must have the latest car to keep up with the neighbours, then a PCP can make a lot of sense. You'll have a brand-new car on your driveway every three years or so, and because you're not buying outright, you can get a bit more car for your money than you'd be able to get by taking out a conventional loan. A canny PCP provider will do everything they can to ensure that your car’s value at the end of the PCP term will be a little higher than the GMFV payment required to buy it outright.

This difference between the balloon payment and the car's value can then be used to help reduce the deposit you will pay on the next car the dealer will line up for you when the current PCP runs out.

This is ideal if you want to drive away in a car from the same manufacturer, although isn't great if you've had a bad experience with the manufacturer and want to walk away. You can't take this cash away and spend it elsewhere - it's just there to sweeten any future PCP you may want to sign up to.

If you do walk away, that's it - no car, no cash back, but at least you don't have to cover the final balloon payment. Once the monthly payments stop, that's it, you're back to square one. The only outstanding payments there may be at this stage will be if you've exceeded the mileage allowance for the term of the PCP, or if there is damage to the car that will need repairing. 

A PCP can be a good way of owning a car for a short term, then if your circumstances change, you don't have to worry about the financial burden any more once you've handed the car back. But then you won't have the car as an extra bargaining chip when it comes to arranging a deposit on your next car.

Your PCP questions answered

What does PCP mean?

PCP stands for Personal Contract Purchase and it’s one of the most popular forms of car finance available to buyers.

PCP deals are particularly flexible, with buyers able to spread their payments out in a way that suits them. For example, you can pay a larger deposit in order to reduce your monthly payments.

How does PCP work?

When you first sign up to a PCP deal, you’ll agree with the dealer how long the contract will last and be given a Guaranteed Minimum Future Value.

You’ll then pay a deposit, typically around 10 per cent of the value of the car, although this is negotiable. If you’re taking out a PCP deal on a new car, the manufacturer may make a deposit contribution to help you with this.

Then there are your monthly payments, which you typically make over a 36- or 48-month period. Once you reach the end of the contract, you’re faced with a choice between giving the car back - subject to extra charges for any damage or excess mileage - or keeping it permanently. If you wish to keep your car, you will have to make a final balloon payment to cover the rest of the vehicle’s value.

What are the advantages of PCP?

With a PCP deal, customers will find themselves paying less per month than they would on an equivalent HP contract, for example, plus they’ll have the option to keep the car at the end of the contract.

If you want to take ownership of the car at the end of the term, PCP will often prove more expensive than hire purchase finance deals, but if you want to hand the car back or trade in for an all new model, as most PCP customers do, it's a good option.

The Guaranteed Minimum Future Value eliminates concerns about the car’s value at the end of the contract, plus some dealers may offer servicing and warranty packages as part of a PCP deal.

Are there any risks involved in PCP car purchases?

The inherent risk of any form of finance purchase is that, after signing up to it, you may experience a change in personal circumstances - such as loss of employment - that means you can no longer afford to make your payments.

Fortunately, the Financial Conduct Authority requires that finance providers be fair to customers in this scenario. If you are struggling to make your payments, therefore, the best thing to do is to contact your finance provider and discuss the best way to move forward with them.

Manufacturers push PCP, so interest rates are often low, but they also set mileage limits with an excess mileage charge applied if you exceed them, usually at a pence-per-mile rate. What's more, you'll need to maintain the car in accordance with the manufacturer’s service schedule. While that's good practice anyway, if the car is damaged and you return it at the end of the PCP deal, the dealer can mark down its value.

What is Guaranteed Minimum Future Value (GMFV)?

When you set up a PCP deal, the dealer will give you a 'Guaranteed Minimum Future Value' for the car. The GMFV is the minimum amount the car will be worth at the end of the agreement. So if the car unexpectedly drops in value, you'll be protected. And if the car happens to be worth more than the GMFV at the end of the PCP, you can use the equity as a deposit in your next deal.   

If the car is worth more than the GMFV, you can put any excess payments you have made towards its deprecation towards the deposit on a new vehicle. If the car is worth less, it’s the lender’s problem – you can simply hand it back.

Click the links below to get full guides on each of the key car finance options and visit our sister site BuyaCar for the latest used car PCP deals...

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