Used electric cars: should you buy one?
There's plenty to bear in mind if you're thinking of buying a used electric vehicle - these are our top tips…
Electric cars are becoming increasingly popular, with 13,597 pure EVs registered in 2017, an increase of 32.5 per cent on the previous year. The appetite for alternatively fuelled vehicles (AFVs) has hit a record high, which means there are more used electric cars entering the secondhand market.
You can understand the appeal. The carrot of purchase incentives and the stick of diesel legislation combines with the promise of zero-emissions driving and the introduction of 'clean air zones' to make the idea of electric car ownership a compelling prospect.
Buying any used car can be a daunting experience, but there are even more things to consider when going electric. Just as well, then, that we have prepared a handy guide to buying a used electric vehicle, helping you to choose the right EV for you and your needs.
Our guide includes how you can secure the best deal and how you can charge your electric car after you've made a purchase. We've also got the lowdown on the best electric vehicles on the market, along with two real-world case studies focused on the experiences of EV drivers.
Does an EV suit me?
You're unlikely to buy a used car without assessing your needs and wants, but there are other things to consider when buying electric. Critically, is an EV the right choice for you and your lifestyle? Electric cars are a brilliant solution for some, but other drivers could find that a fuel-efficient petrol, diesel or hybrid car is more suitable.
Start with the issue of charging: if you haven't got access to a garage, off-road parking or somewhere to install a charging point, an electric car could quite literally be a non-starter.
If this fails, can you charge the car at work? If not, you'll be forced to rely on the UK's charging network, which is growing at an increasingly rapid rate. According to ZapMap, there are currently charging points at 5,000 locations, with more than 8,000 devices and 14,000 connectors.
But, there's no guarantee that the charging point you go to will be working, and it might not cater for your car's charging requirements. EV charging points at supermarkets and other busy locations could be occupied by thoughtless non-EV owners, too - it's the equivalent of parking at a petrol pump when you're just popping into the mini mart for a loaf of bread.
If you're confident that you'll be able to charge an EV, the next thing you need to bear in mind is what kind of driving you normally do. If you do a lot of motorway miles, then an EV is a no-go, as a fully charged battery will lose its charge a lot faster at motorway speeds than the estimated range will lead you to believe. If short urban trips take up most of your driving, then an EV is ideal, as stop-start traffic will help limit battery depletion, and in some models it will even replenish the battery while you're on the move.
Depending on which car you go for, you need to be aware of the different charging options open to you. All models will have a charging cable with a standard UK three-pin plug available, so you can simply plug the car into the mains. But this is the slowest way of charging an EV.
There are Government incentives available to get an EV charging station set up at your home, and this can reduce charging times by up to 60 per cent. You can currently get up to £500 off a home charge point installation, although you need proof of ownership of an EV before you can apply, so this will be something to consider once you've bought an electric car.
Current EVs use an industry standard seven-pin charging lead, but older EVs may only come with two or five-pin charging leads and sockets. If you're looking at a Tesla Model S, then you will have access to the firm's Supercharger network, which uses yet another type of charging lead that's incompatible with any other electric car charger.
What to look for
The biggest issue with electric cars, and particularly used electric cars, is how well the batteries keep their charge. If you purchase a car that has trouble maintaining battery energy, then you'll need to consider the cost of replacing the battery. This can be astronomical, especially when compared to the cost of buying a used EV, as electric cars have poor depreciation that will soon see their used price fall below the cost of battery replacement.
To eliminate this potential headache, you can look at an EV that has a battery lease plan to go with it. Renault offered such a scheme from 2015 onwards, and while you'll have a monthly battery lease to pay, this will be offset by the car's lower price.
Other than that, you can look at a used EV in the same way as you would a conventional car. Make sure all of the electrics work - EVs are usually pretty well equipped, so check all the gadgets are functioning - while most electric cars will have been used in town, so keep an eye out for wheel damage that may extend to the suspension behind it.
Most EVs come with a separate warranty for their battery, and this usually runs for longer than the car's warranty. There was an industry standard eight-year warranty on many models, although some later cars have a shorter five-year term. Either way, this should give you added peace of mind that the battery will keep its charge.
What are the best used electric cars?
So which used electric cars should you be thinking about if you are looking to buy? We’ve rounded up six of the best.
BMW started with a clean slate when it created the i3 – and it shows. Designed without compromise, the distinctive supermini has a body built from lightweight carbon fibre and offers great practicality.
If you’re not sure about going the whole hog with a purely electric car there’s also a range-extender (REx) edition available. This features a 650cc petrol engine that acts as an on-board generator to keep the batteries topped up, so there’s no danger of being left stranded on your adventures this year.
Owners seem happy so far, but punctured tyres are common, especially on 20-inch wheels. There have also been a number of software updates to improve how the car charges and runs, so make sure they’ve all been done before buying.
|UK sales started:||November 2013|
|Used prices from:||£16,000|
|Official range:||80-195 miles (288 miles for REx)|
|Number sold so far:||5,897 (including REx)|
|Battery warranty:||8yrs/100k miles|
|Driver Power 2017 ranking:||N/A|
Kia Soul EV
As a small family car, it’s reasonably practical for travel. The boot isn’t all that big so you might have to cut back on what you plan to carry, but cabin space is no worse than in a regular edition. The dash is modern and appealing but looks conventional, while like all the cars in this line-up the Kia comes as an automatic only.
When we ran a Soul EV on our fleet in 2015 the car proved reliable and we loved it. Relatively few electric models have been sold so far, but there don’t seem to be any fault patterns yet.
|UK sales started:||November 2014|
|Used prices from:||£15,000|
|Official range:||132 miles|
|Number sold so far:||282|
|Battery warranty:||7yrs/100k miles|
|Driver Power 2017:||N/A|
As the first commercially successful electric car, the Leaf is a trailblazer. With almost six years’ worth of sales now under its belt, the family hatchback is also by far the most plentiful EV on the used market – unlike the other models in our list, there are hundreds of second-hand Leafs to choose from.
When we ran one on our fleet, the Nissan’s keys were usually the first to be claimed every night, thanks to its compliant ride, nippy urban performance and ultra-low running costs (EVs are exempt from London’s Congestion Charge).
Some early cars are now suffering from a reduced range, but that doesn’t mean the entire battery pack has to be replaced – you can just swap out the faulty cells, which is a relatively inexpensive process.
|UK sales started:||March 2011|
|Used prices from:||£6,000|
|Official range:||124 miles|
|Number sold so far:||16,344|
|Battery warranty:||5yrs/60k miles|
|Replacement battery:||£4,920 (less £820 for old battery)|
|Driver Power 2017:||33rd|
Of all the electric cars available, the ZOE is perhaps the best all-rounder. It’s good to drive, spacious and practical, but it’s also more affordable than any of the alternatives.
With even entry-level models well equipped, there’s no reason to shop further up the range, and the Renault promises more than 100 miles on a single charge.
There is one big caveat, however – on top of the purchase cost, you’ll also have to pay at least £70 per month to lease the battery. That’s unless you buy a ZOE i (from November 2015), which comes with the battery included, although you’ll struggle to find one of these for less than £15,000.
|UK sales started:||March 2013|
|Used prices from:||£5,000|
|Official range:||130 miles|
|Number sold so far:||5,046|
|Battery warranty:||5yrs/60k miles|
|Driver Power 2017:||N/A|
Tesla Model S
Tesla came from nowhere and created a luxury car with everything – apart from a conventional engine. Drive one of these astonishing exec hatchbacks, and your perceptions of EVs will be changed forever.
You pay handsomely for the privilege, but in return the Model S brings a spacious interior that feels ultra-modern with its touchscreen tablet dash. There’s a huge boot in the nose and an even bigger one behind the cabin, plus the Tesla offers enough performance to worry fully fledged supercars – while carrying five adults in comfort. Some owners have experienced reliability issues, but the Model S came top in our Driver Power 2016 satisfaction survey.
|UK sales started:||May 2014|
|Used prices from:||£40,000|
|Official range:||248-381 miles|
|Number sold so far:||N/A|
|Battery warranty:||8yrs/unlimited miles|
|Driver Power 2017:||N/A|
The Golf is a great family hatch – one of our favourites, in fact. However, when you create an EV from a car powered by petrol or diesel, it’s inevitably not as slick as one that was designed to run on electricity from the outset.
In this case, the e-Golf retains the original’s practicality, superb build quality and refinement levels, but the ride is disappointing, the price is too high and the handling isn’t as sweet as you’d expect from a Golf. If you can get the right deal, the VW is definitely worth a closer look, though – especially once prices have dropped further.
|UK sales started:||June 2014|
|Used prices from:||£19,000|
|Official range:||118 miles|
|Number sold so far:||N/A|
|Battery warranty:||8yrs/100k miles|
|Replacement battery:||£18,497 + fitting|
|Driver Power 2017:||18th (all Golfs)|
Electric car case studies: how they can slash your bills
Case One: Mark Tebbutt
Drives: Nissan Leaf, personal contract purchase (PCP)
Mark Tebbutt from Chorley, Lancashire, has leased Nissan Leafs through his company since March 2011. He’s currently running his third, which was delivered new a year ago. His first Leaf did 12,531 miles in 27 months, using £343.38 worth of electricity. The total cost of maintenance was £242.10 for two services, and the monthly PCP was £449.03 (with a £2,000 deposit).
While Mark’s first two Leafs had the 24kWh battery, his current car is a 30kWh model and costs £288.37 a month on a PCP; the deposit was £1,500. That lets him notch up 15,000 miles a year, although he’s on track to get closer to 25,000; each extra mile carries a 8p penalty. So far the car has needed one £99 service; no fresh tyres are yet required.
As Mark is a business user the Leaf makes a lot of sense; he can claim a commuting mileage allowance of 45p per mile for the first 10,000 miles, then 25p per mile after that. He currently drives 420 work miles each week, and as each of those costs around 1p (for the electricity only) compared with an estimated 11p/mile for a diesel, that’s a lot of cash saved. Free electricity has been available from a workplace parking charger since last August, so Mark has been quids in – our table shows how his costs compare with a diesel Nissan Qashqai – although he knows at some point he’ll have to start paying for this ‘fuel’.
He says: “I’d advise no one to buy a new EV outright within five years, due to the pace of change. Big improvements in range and capabilities are coming that will make current EVs obsolete, especially those without a maker battery upgrade.
“Instead, I’d recommend leasing a new electric car via PCP, then handing it back at the end of the lease and upgrading to the latest model. Or buy a cheap, used, non-battery lease, Sunderland-built Leaf if you can live with the driving range.”
Still, at the right price, Mark feels an outright purchase can make sense. He tells us: “I’ve heard of owners being offered the chance to buy their ex-PCP cars at well below the balloon payment price, while pre-registered cars can be found at healthy discounts. My dad bought a six-month-old ex-demo with 5,000 miles on the clock for around £17,000 in March 2015. That was a saving of £9,000 on the new list price.
“He covers only around 2,500 miles each year, and partially charges his car from excess solar power between the spring and autumn. Indeed, in 2016 his electricity bill for the car was £57.29; that’s very cheap motoring indeed.”
|Nissan Leaf Tekna||Nissan Qashqai dCi 110 Tekna|
|PCP cost (monthly)||£288.37*||£423|
|PCP cost (12 months)||£3,460.44||£5,076|
|Road tax||£0||£20 (103g/km)|
|Fuel (15,000 miles)||£166.98||£1,485.60**|
|Cost per mile||24.8p||45.2p|
*Allowance of up to 15,000 miles per year. **Qashqai claims economy of 70mpg; 55mpg in real world.
Case Two: Sam East
Drives: Renault ZOE, outright purchase
Sam East reckons there are two types of EV driver: those who buy for ethical reasons, and those who want the cheapest-possible motoring. Sam, from Stratford-upon-Avon, Warks, is largely in the second camp, although naturally he’s also a fan of cleaner air. Having run a 54-plate Renault Mégane, Sam bought his ZOE outright in 2015, but leases the batteries.
He says: “The ZOE was the cheapest EV on the market; mine had done only 200 miles and cost £9,000. It’s now one 40,000 miles; it’s been to the Netherlands and Scotland, and has notched up as many as 600 miles in a day, so it’s very usable.”
Sam charges his car overnight using home-energy plan Economy 7’s cheaper night rates. In the first year this cost 4p/kWh, so 16,000 miles of motoring cost £160; the other 4,000 miles were fuelled via free charging points. But in year two the Economy 7 price rose to 5p/kWh, hiking Sam’s bills to £200 for 16,000 miles; again, 20 per cent of mileage was courtesy of free charging points. The only other costs have been two services (£140) and two front tyres at 25,000 miles (£210). And you can see how these figures stack up against those for a Renault Clio diesel in our table.
Says Sam: “I charge the car at home where possible; I can take it from empty to full for 88p, where even a partial charge at motorway services is a flat £6. Still, there are some free charging points; if you use these you can cut costs further.”
He continues: “The issue is that the UK’s charging network isn’t joined up, so to go where you like needs subscriptions to numerous providers. Despite this, I’m still saving £250 per month with the ZOE, compared with a conventional car. Part of that is from lower fuel costs and part from lower parking costs; my nearest railway station’s £4 daily charge is waived for electric vehicles.”
|Renault ZOE Dynamique Intens||Renault Clio 1.5 dCi Dynamique Media Nav|
|List price||£15,195 (after £5,000 grant)||£15,595|
|Pre-reg price||£9,000.00||£12,500 (estimate)|
|Road tax||£0||£0 (82g/km)|
|Fuel (40,000 miles)||£360||£3,352*|
|Battery lease total||£1,680||£0|
|Maintenance||£350 (incl. tyres)||£540 (est. including tyres)|
|Trade-in value||£4,500 (£6,175 forecourt)||£6,750 (£8,275 forecourt)|
|Cost per mile||6.0p (17.2p)**||9.7p (24p)|
*Clio claims economy of 85.6mpg; 65mpg in real world. Diesel at £1.20 per litre. **Cost per mile including depreciation. Insurance costs are assumed to be roughly equal plus Sam has saved hundreds in parking costs by running an EV.
Would you buy a used electric car? Let us know in the comments section below and find out about recycling electric car batteries over on our sister site DrivingElectric…